ملخص الدرس / الثالثة ثانوي/اللغة الإنجليزية/UNIT 2/Advertising-Consumers

Modals of obligation and necessity



possitive  Negative  Interrogative 
I/you/he/she/we/they must go now I/you/he/she/we/they must not/ musn't go now

must I/he go now

when must I/you... go?  




Must= obligation 

we use must when we think it is important or essential to do an action .

In England ,you must drive on the left, but in Algeria, you must drive on the right .

Musn't= negative of obligation prohibition .

we use musn't when we think that it is important or essential not to do an action .

we musn't drive fast here.the road sing says that the speed limitis 50 kms per hours   


have to:


positive  Negative  Interrogative 
Zohra is a nurse.some times she has to work on weekends Yasmine is a teacher she does not have /doesn't have to/needn't work on weekend. 

Does Yasmine have to work on weekends?

yes, she does.


have to : obligation 

in positive sentences, we often use have to express obligation .in this case, have to is little different form must. 

In Algeria, you have to be 18 before you're allowed to take your driving licence test 

have to : necessity

We can use have to to talk about an action that is neccessary.

We have to eat in order to live.Eating is neccessity because there is no other possibility for staying alive .


you dont have to/needn't do this exercise .it's optional .Absence /lack  of obligation .

you mustn't cheat in the exam.it's forbidden. Prohibition/ negative obligation . 

Modals: may/ might /could

forms of may and it functions :

Bashir is absent .he may be ill. POSSIBILITY 

it will rain tomorrow in North of wales.weather forecats.


prediction sure 

it may rain tomorrow .the sky is a littel bit cloudy today.


 futur possibility not sure 

it might/could rain tomorrow , but there are not coulds in the sky .

remote possibility 


Ihaven't done well in the exams. Imay not  pass.

Negative of may  possibility 

May I /we go out ?

Qsking for permission 

yes, you may 

giving permission 

No you may not/mayn't.No, you can't 

Refusing  permission 

don't eat a lot of sugar  you  might /could have a diabetes.

Expressing a warning 

I'm a not good at maths.well you might/could revise with me 

Making a suggestinon

May god bless you  Expressing a wish 



in the interrogative form , we use may only for asking permission .

we can't ask questions about possibility with may .instead we can use can, could , might .

can I fail in my exams? 

there is difference between cannot and may not when they are used to speak about possibility .

he can't come to the party.he is in hospital .(I'm sure).

it is not possible that he will come because he is in the hospital.(I'm not sure).

he may not come to the party he is busy.( I'm not sure).

he may come if he is free, but on the other hand he may not if he is still busy .

we can add well or possibly to may .we add well if we are more sure, and possibly if we are less sure.

can I fail in my exams?

Idon't know .you may possibly fail .but on the other hand you may well succeed.

you can use can ,could and may for asking permission .but could I?and May I? are more formal and polite than can I?. 

agreement and disagreement

We often use stative (also called non-conclusive verbs) like think, believe, hope, guess, suppose, etc. to express agreement or disagreement with what is said to us.

When we agree, we use all of these verbs with so. E.g. "Will man be capable of settling on the moon some day?' 'I think so.' 

O When we disagree, we use. A. the negative form of the verb followed by so (with think, believe,suppose) E.g. 'I don't think so.' 

the affirmative form of the verb followed by not (with hope, guess, suppose). E.g. 'I hope not.' 

O You will notice that suppose can be used either way.

the opinions/arguments

When we listen to debates about important issues, we don't listen just to get information but also to appreciate the opinions/arguments which are expressed. As we listen we evaluate these opinions by agreeing or disagreeing with them. We also form our own opinions about these issues at the same time.

ask for or give opinions:

When we ask for or give opinions, or say what people think, we use the expressions listed in table 1. Opinions are not facts. We can agree or disagree with them by starting with the expressions listed in table 2.

Giving your opinion:

Asking someone for their opinion

Giving your opinion

Saying what people think

Do you think ...?

What do you think about...?

What do you think of ...?

What do you say to that?

I think that ...

I believe that...

In my opinion, ...

It seems to me(that)... .

As far as I'm concerned /as

for me

If you ask me,...

(Some people) think!

 believe that...

be in favour of 

be against

 be undecided 

be in two minds





Agreeing strongly

Absolutely/exactly- I couldn't agree more-You are telling me - Right you are! ...

Yes, I know - I quite agree with you - That's Agreeing

right - You're right ...

Agreeing but not strongly I suppose so - I guess so .

Disagreeing politely

.. Yes, but - I know, but - I see your point, but -

But don't you think...? - I'm not so sure...

Disagreeing strongly

 No. That's not true - You must be joking! - No way - I can't accept that - Rubbish!

prefix self-

We can form new adjectives and nouns by adding prefix self- to some nouns and adjectives.

E.g. Some people are self-centred. 

The adjective self-centred is made of prefix self- and the adjective centred.

The prefix self-replaces myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves.

Hence, we can rewrite the example above as follows: Some people are centred on themselves.

Prefix /Suffix:

Prefix: it comes before the word and changes its meaning.


Agree ⟼ disagree Moral   ⟼ immoral
Legal ⟼ illegal Fair      ⟼ unfair
Direct ⟼ indirect Responsible ⟼irresponsible


Suffix: it comes after the word and changes its form to an adjective, an adverb, a noun, a verb.


The suffix “ty” is added to an adjective to form a noun

Stupid ⟼ Stupidity

The suffix “y” is added to a noun to form an adjective

 Spice ⟼ Spicy 

Informal request

Can/will….? → Informal request

Will you come to the party ?

Can you cut my hair like Madonna ?

Formal request:

Could/may/would….?  → Formal request

Could you sing that song, please ? 

Other expressions:

Would you mind….?I/we’d like…..

Would you mind turning off the radio ?

Formal request:

Could/may/would….?  → Formal request

Could you sing that song, please ? 

Other expressions:

Would you mind….?I/we’d like…..

Would you mind turning off the radio ?